In the inlet valleys of the Atlantic-facing mountains we find relict woods of the Tertiary sub-tropical forests that survived the last glaciations. The chain fern, the oleander, the heberdenia excelsa, the arbutus, the laurel, the holly, the lily-of-the-valley-tree, the cibotium dicksoniaceae (epiphyte fetus), the sweet amber and the hart’s tongue are some of these formations typical species to be found here. As the chain fern and the oleander are very rare species, they can only be sometimes seen in the deeper valleys of the Caima, Teixeira and Alfusqueiro rivers. The habitat of the heberdenia excelsa, a formation dominated by the heberdenia excelsa, but also accompanied by further evergreen species and that resembles in everything Madeira’s laurissilva, abounds in the Paiva and Teixeira rivers. We can find extensive holly groves, permanently accompanied by laurel forests, in the Caima and in some of Vouga’s tributaries. An evergreen forest with holly, lily-of-the-valley-tree, arbutus and herbaceous species such as the sweet amber and the three bird toadflax can be seen among the vertiginous walls that line the streams In some of Vouga’s tributaries.